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ADA 2010 Standards

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404 Doors, Doorways, and Gates

Automatic Door Break Out Openings. The 1991 Standards do not contain any technical requirement for automatic door break out openings. The 2010 Standards at sections 404.1, 404.3, 404.3.1, and 404.3.6 require automatic doors that are part of a means of egress and that do not have standby power to have a 32-inch minimum clear break out opening when operated in emergency mode. The minimum clear opening width for automatic doors is measured with all leaves in the open position. Automatic bi-parting doors or pairs of swinging doors that provide a 32-inch minimum clear break out opening in emergency mode when both leaves are opened manually meet the technical requirement. Section 404.3.6 of the 2010 Standards includes an exception that exempts automatic doors from the technical requirement for break out openings when accessible manual swinging doors serve the same means of egress.

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors. Section 4.13.6 of the 1991 Standards does not require maneuvering clearance at automatic doors. Section 404.3.2 of the 2010 Standards requires automatic doors that serve as an accessible means of egress to either provide maneuvering clearance or to have standby power to operate the door in emergencies. This provision has limited application and will affect, among others, in-swinging automatic doors that serve small spaces.

Commenters urged the Department to reconsider provisions that would require maneuvering clearance or standby power for automatic doors. They assert that these requirements would impose unreasonable financial and administrative burdens on all covered entities, particularly smaller entities. The Department declines to change these provisions because they are fundamental life-safety issues. The requirement applies only to doors that are part of a means of egress that must be accessible in an emergency. If an emergency-related power failure prevents the operation of the automatic door, a person with a disability could be trapped unless there is either adequate maneuvering room to open the door manually or a back-up power source.

Thresholds at Doorways. The 1991 Standards, at section 4.13.8, require the height of thresholds at doorways not to exceed 1/2 inch and thresholds at exterior sliding doors not to exceed 3/4 inch. Sections 404.1 and 404.2.5 of the 2010 Standards require the height of thresholds at all doorways that are part of an accessible route not to exceed 1/2 inch. The 1991 Standards and the 2010 Standards require raised thresholds that exceed ¼ inch in height to be beveled on each side with a slope not steeper than 1:2. The 2010 Standards include an exception that exempts existing and altered thresholds that do not exceed 3/4 inch in height and are beveled on each side from the requirement.

404 Doors, Doorways, and Gates

404.1 General. Doors, doorways, and gates that are part of an accessible route shall comply with 404.

EXCEPTION: Doors, doorways, and gates designed to be operated only by security personnel shall not be required to comply with 404.2.7, 404.2.8, 404.2.9, 404.3.2 and 404.3.4 through 404.3.7.

Advisory 404.1 General Exception. Security personnel must have sole control of doors that are eligible for the Exception at 404.1. It would not be acceptable for security personnel to operate the doors for people with disabilities while allowing others to have independent access.

404.2 Manual Doors, Doorways, and Manual Gates. Manual doors and doorways and manual gates intended for user passage shall comply with 404.2.

404.2.1 Revolving Doors, Gates, and Turnstiles. Revolving doors, revolving gates, and turnstiles shall not be part of an accessible route.

404.2.2 Double-Leaf Doors and Gates. At least one of the active leaves of doorways with two leaves shall comply with 404.2.3 and 404.2.4.

404.2.3 Clear Width. Door openings shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees. Openings more than 24 inches (610 mm) deep shall provide a clear opening of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum. There shall be no projections into the required clear opening width lower than 34 inches (865 mm) above the finish floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (865 mm) and 80 inches (2030 mm) above the finish floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (100 mm).

EXCEPTIONS:

1. In alterations, a projection of 5/8 inch (16 mm) maximum into the required clear width shall be permitted for the latch side stop.

2. Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground.

Figure (a) shows in plan view a hinged door open 90 degrees with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum, measured from the face of the door to the opposite stop.  Figure (b) shows an open sliding door with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum.  Figure (c) shows an open folding door with a clear opening width 32 inches (815 mm) minimum.  

Figure 404.2.3 Clear Width of Doorways

404.2.4 Maneuvering Clearances. Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors and gates shall comply with 404.2.4. Maneuvering clearances shall extend the full width of the doorway and the required latch side or hinge side clearance.

EXCEPTION: Entry doors to hospital patient rooms shall not be required to provide the clearance beyond the latch side of the door.

404.2.4.1 Swinging Doors and Gates. Swinging doors and gates shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table 404.2.4.1.
 

Table 404.2.4.1 Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates (text version)

Type of Use

Minimum Maneuvering Clearance

Approach Direction

Door or Gate Side

Perpendicular to Doorway

Parallel to Doorway (beyond latch side unless noted)

From front

Pull

60 inches (1525 mm)

18 inches (455 mm)

From front

Push

48 inches (1220 mm)

0 inches (0 mm)1

From hinge side

Pull

60 inches (1525 mm)

36 inches (915 mm)

From hinge side

Pull

54 inches (1370 mm)

42 inches (1065 mm)

From hinge side

Push

42 inches (1065 mm)2

22 inches (560 mm)3

From latch side

Pull

48 inches (1220 mm)4

24 inches (610 mm)

From latch side

Push

42 inches (1065 mm)4

24 inches (610 mm)

1. Add 12 inches (305 mm) if closer and latch are provided.
2. Add 6 inches (150 mm) if closer and latch are provided.
3. Beyond hinge side.
4. Add 6 inches (150 mm) if closer is provided.

Figure 404.2.4.1 Maneuvering Clearance at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates. Figures (a) - (c) Front Approaches.  Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 18 inches (455 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.  On the push side of doors not equipped with a closer or latch, the maneuvering space is the same width as the door opening and extends 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.  At doors equipped with both a closer and a latch, the maneuvering space extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.   Figures (d) - (f) Hinge Approaches.  Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 36 inches (915 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway; if this space extends 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door, it can extend 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.  On the push side, maneuvering space extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the hinge side of the doorway and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway at doors with both a closer and a latch or 42 inches (1065 mm) at doors that do not have both a closer and a latch. 

Figures (h) - (k) Latch Approaches.  Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 24 inches (915 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 54 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway; if the door has both a closer and a latch; if the door does not, the space can be 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum measured perpendicular to the doorway.  On the push side, maneuvering space extends 24 inches (560 mm) from the latch side of the doorway and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway if the door has both a closer and a latch; if it does not, the space can extend 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum measured perpendicular to the doorway.  

Figure 404.2.4.1 Maneuvering Clearances at Manual Swinging Doors and Gates

404.2.4.2 Doorways without Doors or Gates, Sliding Doors, and Folding Doors. Doorways less than 36 inches (915 mm) wide without doors or gates, sliding doors, or folding doors shall have maneuvering clearances complying with Table 404.2.4.2.
 

Table 404.2.4.2 Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors or Gates, Manual Sliding Doors, and Manual Folding Doors

 

Minimum Maneuvering Clearance

Approach Direction

Perpendicular to Doorway

Parallel to Doorway (beyond stop/latch side unless noted)

From Front

48 inches (1220 mm)

0 inches (0 mm)

From side1

42 inches (1065 mm)

0 inches (0 mm)

From pocket/hinge side

42 inches (1065 mm)

22 inches (560 mm)2

From stop/latch side

42 inches (1065 mm)

24 inches (610 mm)

1. Doorway with no door only.
2. Beyond pocket/hinge side.

Figure 404.2.4.2 Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors, Manual Sliding Doors, and Manual Folding Doors. Figure (a) shows a front approach to a sliding or folding (accordion) door.  Maneuvering clearance is as wide as the door opening and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the opening.  Figure (b) shows a doorway without a door.  For a side approach, maneuvering clearance is as wide as the doorway and 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.  Figure (c) shows a pocket or hinge approach.  Maneuvering clearance extends 22 inches (560 mm) from the pocket or hinge side and is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.  Figure (d) shows a stop or latch approach.  Maneuvering clearance extends 24 inches (610 mm) from the stop or latch side and is 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum perpendicular to the doorway.  

Figure 404.2.4.2 Maneuvering Clearances at Doorways without Doors, Sliding Doors, Gates, and Folding Doors

404.2.4.3 Recessed Doors and Gates. Maneuvering clearances for forward approach shall be provided when any obstruction within 18 inches (455 mm) of the latch side of a doorway projects more than 8 inches (205 mm) beyond the face of the door, measured perpendicular to the face of the door or gate.

Advisory 404.2.4.3 Recessed Doors and Gates. A door can be recessed due to wall thickness or because of the placement of casework and other fixed elements adjacent to the doorway. This provision must be applied wherever doors are recessed.

Figure 404.2.4.3 Maneuvering Clearance at Recessed Doors and Gates.  Figures (a) - (c) show front approaches at doors recessed more than 8 inches (455 mm).  Maneuvering space on the pull side extends 18 inches (455 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum perpendicular to the plane of the doorway.  On the push side of doors not equipped with a closer or latch, the maneuvering space is the same width as the door opening and extends 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum perpendicular to the plane of the doorway.  At doors equipped with both a closer and a latch, the maneuvering space extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the latch side of the door and 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum measured perpendicular to the plane of the doorway.  

Figure 404.2.4.3 Maneuvering Clearances at Recessed Doors and Gates

404.2.4.4 Floor or Ground Surface. Floor or ground surface within required maneuvering clearances shall comply with 302. Changes in level are not permitted.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Slopes not steeper than 1:48 shall be permitted.

2. Changes in level at thresholds complying with 404.2.5 shall be permitted.

404.2.5 Thresholds. Thresholds, if provided at doorways, shall be 1/2 inch (13 mm) high maximum. Raised thresholds and changes in level at doorways shall comply with 302 and 303.

EXCEPTION: Existing or altered thresholds 3/4 inch (19 mm) high maximum that have a beveled edge on each side with a slope not steeper than 1:2 shall not be required to comply with 404.2.5.

404.2.6 Doors in Series and Gates in Series. The distance between two hinged or pivoted doors in series and gates in series shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum plus the width of doors or gates swinging into the space.
 

Figure (a) shows two doors in series which swing in the same direction.  Space between the doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) minimum plus the width of the in-swinging door.  Figure (b) shows two doors in series which swing away from the space between the doors.  The space separating the doors must be at least 48 inches (1220 mm) long.  

Figure 404.2.6 Doors in Series and Gates in Series

404.2.7 Door and Gate Hardware. Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operable parts on doors and gates shall comply with 309.4. Operable parts of such hardware shall be 34 inches (865 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground. Where sliding doors are in the fully open position, operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Existing locks shall be permitted in any location at existing glazed doors without stiles, existing overhead rolling doors or grilles, and similar existing doors or grilles that are designed with locks that are activated only at the top or bottom rail.

2. Access gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas, and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finish floor or ground provided the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices and operated by means of a key, electronic opener, or integral combination lock.

Advisory 404.2.7 Door and Gate Hardware. Door hardware that can be operated with a closed fist or a loose grip accommodates the greatest range of users. Hardware that requires simultaneous hand and finger movements require greater dexterity and coordination, and is not recommended.

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404.2.8 Closing Speed. Door and gate closing speed shall comply with 404.2.8.

404.2.8.1 Door Closers and Gate Closers. Door closers and gate closers shall be adjusted so that from an open position of 90 degrees, the time required to move the door to a position of 12 degrees from the latch is 5 seconds minimum.

404.2.8.2 Spring Hinges. Door and gate spring hinges shall be adjusted so that from the open position of 70 degrees, the door or gate shall move to the closed position in 1.5 seconds minimum.

404.2.9 Door and Gate Opening Force. Fire doors shall have a minimum opening force allowable by the appropriate administrative authority. The force for pushing or pulling open a door or gate other than fire doors shall be as follows:

1. Interior hinged doors and gates: 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

2. Sliding or folding doors: 5 pounds (22.2 N) maximum.

These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door or gate in a closed position.

Advisory 404.2.9 Door and Gate Opening Force. The maximum force pertains to the continuous application of force necessary to fully open a door, not the initial force needed to overcome the inertia of the door. It does not apply to the force required to retract bolts or to disengage other devices used to keep the door in a closed position.

404.2.10 Door and Gate Surfaces. Swinging door and gate surfaces within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground measured vertically shall have a smooth surface on the push side extending the full width of the door or gate. Parts creating horizontal or vertical joints in these surfaces shall be within 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) of the same plane as the other. Cavities created by added kick plates shall be capped.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Sliding doors shall not be required to comply with 404.2.10.

2. Tempered glass doors without stiles and having a bottom rail or shoe with the top leading edge tapered at 60 degrees minimum from the horizontal shall not be required to meet the 10 inch (255 mm) bottom smooth surface height requirement.

3. Doors and gates that do not extend to within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with 404.2.10.

4. Existing doors and gates without smooth surfaces within 10 inches (255 mm) of the finish floor or ground shall not be required to provide smooth surfaces complying with 404.2.10 provided that if added kick plates are installed, cavities created by such kick plates are capped

404.2.11 Vision Lights. Doors, gates, and side lights adjacent to doors or gates, containing one or more glazing panels that permit viewing through the panels shall have the bottom of at least one glazed panel located 43 inches (1090 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

EXCEPTION: Vision lights with the lowest part more than 66 inches (1675 mm) from the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with 404.2.11.

404.3 Automatic and Power-Assisted Doors and Gates. Automatic doors and automatic gates shall comply with 404.3. Full-powered automatic doors shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.10 (incorporated by reference, see "Referenced Standards" in Chapter 1). Low-energy and power-assisted doors shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.19 (1997 or 2002 edition) (incorporated by reference, see "Referenced Standards" in Chapter 1).

404.3.1 Clear Width. Doorways shall provide a clear opening of 32 inches (815 mm) minimum in power-on and power-off mode. The minimum clear width for automatic door systems in a doorway shall be based on the clear opening provided by all leaves in the open position.

404.3.2 Maneuvering Clearance. Clearances at power-assisted doors and gates shall comply with 404.2.4. Clearances at automatic doors and gates without standby power and serving an accessible means of egress shall comply with 404.2.4.

EXCEPTION: Where automatic doors and gates remain open in the power-off condition, compliance with 404.2.4 shall not be required.

404.3.3 Thresholds. Thresholds and changes in level at doorways shall comply with 404.2.5.

404.3.4 Doors in Series and Gates in Series. Doors in series and gates in series shall comply with 404.2.6.

404.3.5 Controls. Manually operated controls shall comply with 309. The clear floor space adjacent to the control shall be located beyond the arc of the door swing.

404.3.6 Break Out Opening. Where doors and gates without standby power are a part of a means of egress, the clear break out opening at swinging or sliding doors and gates shall be 32 inches (815 mm) minimum when operated in emergency mode.

EXCEPTION: Where manual swinging doors and gates comply with 404.2 and serve the same means of egress compliance with 404.3.6 shall not be required.

404.3.7 Revolving Doors, Revolving Gates, and Turnstiles. Revolving doors, revolving gates, and turnstiles shall not be part of an accessible route.