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ADA 2010 Standards

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604 Water Closets and Toilet Compartments

604.1 General. Water closets and toilet compartments shall comply with 604.2 through 604.8.

EXCEPTION: Water closets and toilet compartments for children's use shall be permitted to comply with 604.9.

604.2 Location. The water closet shall be positioned with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side. The centerline of the water closet shall be 16 inches (405 mm) minimum to 18 inches (455 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition, except that the water closet shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition in the ambulatory accessible toilet compartment specified in 604.8.2. Water closets shall be arranged for a left-hand or right-hand approach.
 

Figure (a) shows a wheelchair accessible water closet, with space on one side, and figure (b) shows an ambulatory accessible water closet, with stall walls and grab bars on both sides.  The water closet centerline is shown to be 16 to 18 inches (405 to 455 mm) from the side wall.  

Figure 604.2 Water Closet Location

604.3 Clearance. Clearances around water closets and in toilet compartments shall comply with 604.3.

604.3.1 Size. Clearance around a water closet shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the side wall and 56 inches (1420 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.

The clearance around a water closet is shown in plan view to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 56 inches (1420 mm) deep minimum.  

Figure 604.3.1 Size of Clearance at Water Closets

604.3.2 Overlap. The required clearance around the water closet shall be permitted to overlap the water closet, associated grab bars, dispensers, sanitary napkin disposal units, coat hooks, shelves, accessible routes, clear floor space and clearances required at other fixtures, and the turning space. No other fixtures or obstructions shall be located within the required water closet clearance.

EXCEPTION: In residential dwelling units, a lavatory complying with 606 shall be permitted on the rear wall 18 inches (455 mm) minimum from the water closet centerline where the clearance at the water closet is 66 inches (1675 mm) minimum measured perpendicular from the rear wall.

Advisory 604.3.2 Overlap. When the door to the toilet room is placed directly in front of the water closet, the water closet cannot overlap the required maneuvering clearance for the door inside the room.

The clearance around a water closet is shown in plan view to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 66 inches (1675 mm) deep minimum with a lavatory permitted on the real wall if the distance between the lavatory nearest edge and the water closet center line is 18 inches (455 mm) minimum.  

Figure 604.3.2 (Exception) Overlap of Water Closet Clearance in Residential Dwelling Units

604.4 Seats. The seat height of a water closet above the finish floor shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum measured to the top of the seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. A water closet in a toilet room for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use shall not be required to comply with 604.4.

2. In residential dwelling units, the height of water closets shall be permitted to be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum above the finish floor measured to the top of the seat.

604.5 Grab Bars. Grab bars for water closets shall comply with 609. Grab bars shall be provided on the side wall closest to the water closet and on the rear wall.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. Grab bars shall not be required to be installed in a toilet room for a single occupant accessed only through a private office and not for common use or public use provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 604.5.

2. In residential dwelling units, grab bars shall not be required to be installed in toilet or bathrooms provided that reinforcement has been installed in walls and located so as to permit the installation of grab bars complying with 604.5.

3. In detention or correction facilities, grab bars shall not be required to be installed in housing or holding cells that are specially designed without protrusions for purposes of suicide prevention.

Advisory 604.5 Grab Bars Exception 2. Reinforcement must be sufficient to permit the installation of rear and side wall grab bars that fully meet all accessibility requirements including, but not limited to, required length, installation height, and structural strength.

604.5.1 Side Wall. The side wall grab bar shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extending 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum from the rear wall.
 

Elevation drawing shows the side wall grab bar to be 42 inches (1065) long minimum, located 12 inches (305 mm) maximum from the rear wall and extending 54 inches (1370 mm) minimum from the rear wall.  

Figure 604.5.1 Side Wall Grab Bar at Water Closets

604.5.2 Rear Wall. The rear wall grab bar shall be 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum and extend from the centerline of the water closet 12 inches (305 mm) minimum on one side and 24 inches (610 mm) minimum on the other side.

EXCEPTIONS:

1. The rear grab bar shall be permitted to be 24 inches (610 mm) long minimum, centered on the water closet, where wall space does not permit a length of 36 inches (915 mm) minimum due to the location of a recessed fixture adjacent to the water closet.

2. Where an administrative authority requires flush controls for flush valves to be located in a position that conflicts with the location of the rear grab bar, then the rear grab bar shall be permitted to be split or shifted to the open side of the toilet area.

Elevation drawing shows the rear grab bar 36 inches (915 mm) long minimum, positioned so that 24 inches (610 mm) minimum extends toward the open transfer side and 12 inches (305 mm) minimum extends toward the side wall.  

Figure 604.5.2 Rear Wall Grab Bar at Water Closets

604.6 Flush Controls. Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic. Hand operated flush controls shall comply with 309. Flush controls shall be located on the open side of the water closet except in ambulatory accessible compartments complying with 604.8.2.

Advisory 604.6 Flush Controls. If plumbing valves are located directly behind the toilet seat, flush valves and related plumbing can cause injury or imbalance when a person leans back against them. To prevent causing injury or imbalance, the plumbing can be located behind walls or to the side of the toilet; or if approved by the local authority having jurisdiction, provide a toilet seat lid.

604.7 Dispensers. Toilet paper dispensers shall comply with 309.4 and shall be 7 inches (180 mm) minimum and 9 inches (230 mm) maximum in front of the water closet measured to the centerline of the dispenser. The outlet of the dispenser shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor and shall not be located behind grab bars. Dispensers shall not be of a type that controls delivery or that does not allow continuous paper flow.

Advisory 604.7 Dispensers. If toilet paper dispensers are installed above the side wall grab bar, the outlet of the toilet paper dispenser must be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor and the top of the gripping surface of the grab bar must be 33 inches (840 mm) minimum and 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

Elevation drawing shows the centerline of the toilet paper dispenser to be 7 to 9 inches (180 to 230 mm) in front of the water closet.  The outlet of the dispenser is 15 inches (380 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the floor.  

Figure 604.7 Dispenser Outlet Location

604.8 Toilet Compartments. Wheelchair accessible toilet compartments shall meet the requirements of 604.8.1 and 604.8.3. Compartments containing more than one plumbing fixture shall comply with 603. Ambulatory accessible compartments shall comply with 604.8.2 and 604.8.3.

604.8.1 Wheelchair Accessible Compartments. Wheelchair accessible compartments shall comply with 604.8.1.

604.8.1.1 Size. Wheelchair accessible compartments shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum measured perpendicular to the side wall, and 56 inches (1420 mm) deep minimum for wall hung water closets and 59 inches (1500 mm) deep minimum for floor mounted water closets measured perpendicular to the rear wall. Wheelchair accessible compartments for children's use shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum measured perpendicular to the side wall, and 59 inches (1500 mm) deep minimum for wall hung and floor mounted water closets measured perpendicular to the rear wall.

Advisory 604.8.1.1 Size. The minimum space required in toilet compartments is provided so that a person using a wheelchair can maneuver into position at the water closet. This space cannot be obstructed by baby changing tables or other fixtures or conveniences, except as specified at 604.3.2 (Overlap). If toilet compartments are to be used to house fixtures other than those associated with the water closet, they must be designed to exceed the minimum space requirements. Convenience fixtures such as baby changing tables must also be accessible to people with disabilities as well as to other users. Toilet compartments that are designed to meet, and not exceed, the minimum space requirements may not provide adequate space for maneuvering into position at a baby changing table.

Figure (a) is a plan view of an adult wall hung water closet.  The compartment is shown to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 56 inches (1420 mm) deep minimum.  Figure (b) is a plan view of an adult floor mounted and a children’s water closet.  The compartment is shown to be 60 inches (1525 mm) wide minimum and 59 inches (1500 mm) deep minimum.  

Figure 604.8.1.1 Size of Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Compartment

604.8.1.2 Doors. Toilet compartment doors, including door hardware, shall comply with 404 except that if the approach is to the latch side of the compartment door, clearance between the door side of the compartment and any obstruction shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum. Doors shall be located in the front partition or in the side wall or partition farthest from the water closet. Where located in the front partition, the door opening shall be 4 inches (100 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition farthest from the water closet. Where located in the side wall or partition, the door opening shall be 4 inches (100 mm) maximum from the front partition. The door shall be self-closing. A door pull complying with 404.2.7 shall be placed on both sides of the door near the latch. Toilet compartment doors shall not swing into the minimum required compartment area.
 

The compartment door is hinged 4 inches (100 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition farthest from the water closet so that the door opens on to the open transfer space.  The minimum clearance between the door side of the stall and any obstruction is 42 inches (1065 mm).  

Figure 604.8.1.2 Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Compartment Doors

604.8.1.3 Approach. Compartments shall be arranged for left-hand or right-hand approach to the water closet.

604.8.1.4 Toe Clearance. The front partition and at least one side partition shall provide a toe clearance of 9 inches (230 mm) minimum above the finish floor and 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum beyond the compartment-side face of the partition, exclusive of partition support members. Compartments for children's use shall provide a toe clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) minimum above the finish floor.

EXCEPTION: Toe clearance at the front partition is not required in a compartment greater than 62 inches (1575 mm) deep with a wall-hung water closet or 65 inches (1650 mm) deep with a floor-mounted water closet. Toe clearance at the side partition is not required in a compartment greater than 66 inches (1675 mm) wide. Toe clearance at the front partition is not required in a compartment for children's use that is greater than 65 inches (1650 mm) deep.
 

Figure (a) is an elevation drawing showing toe clearance under a toilet compartment partition.  Toe clearance is 9 inches (230 mm) high minimum and 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum beyond the compartment-side face of the partition.  Figure (b) is an elevation drawing for a children’s toilet compartment.  Toe clearance is 12 inches (305 mm) high minimum and 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum beyond the compartment-side face of the partition.  Figure (c) is a plan view showing toe clearance under the front partition and one side partition, 6 inches (150 mm) deep minimum.  

Figure 604.8.1.4 Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Compartment Toe Clearance

604.8.1.5 Grab Bars. Grab bars shall comply with 609. A side-wall grab bar complying with 604.5.1 shall be provided and shall be located on the wall closest to the water closet. In addition, a rear-wall grab bar complying with 604.5.2 shall be provided.

604.8.2 Ambulatory Accessible Compartments. Ambulatory accessible compartments shall comply with 604.8.2.

604.8.2.1 Size. Ambulatory accessible compartments shall have a depth of 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum and a width of 35 inches (890 mm) minimum and 37 inches (940 mm) maximum.

604.8.2.2 Doors. Toilet compartment doors, including door hardware, shall comply with 404, except that if the approach is to the latch side of the compartment door, clearance between the door side of the compartment and any obstruction shall be 42 inches (1065 mm) minimum. The door shall be self-closing. A door pull complying with 404.2.7 shall be placed on both sides of the door near the latch. Toilet compartment doors shall not swing into the minimum required compartment area.

604.8.2.3 Grab Bars. Grab bars shall comply with 609. A side-wall grab bar complying with 604.5.1 shall be provided on both sides of the compartment.
 

The compartment is 60 inches (1525 mm) deep minimum and 35 to 37 inches (890 to 940 mm) wide, with grab bars on both sides.   The minimum clearance between the door side of the stall and any obstruction is 42 inches (1065 mm).  

Figure 604.8.2 Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartment

604.8.3 Coat Hooks and Shelves. Coat hooks shall be located within one of the reach ranges specified in 308. Shelves shall be located 40 inches (1015 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the finish floor.

604.9 Water Closets and Toilet Compartments for Children's Use. Water closets and toilet compartments for children's use shall comply with 604.9.

Advisory 604.9 Water Closets and Toilet Compartments for Children's Use. The requirements in 604.9 are to be followed where the exception for children's water closets in 604.1 is used. The following table provides additional guidance in applying the specifications for water closets for children according to the age group served and reflects the differences in the size, stature, and reach ranges of children ages 3 through 12. The specifications chosen should correspond to the age of the primary user group. The specifications of one age group should be applied consistently in the installation of a water closet and related elements.
 

Advisory Specifications for Water Closets Serving Children Ages 3 through 12

 

Ages 3 and 4

Ages 5 through 8

Ages 9 through 12

Water Closet Centerline

12 inches

(305 mm)

12 to 15 inches

(305 to 380 mm)

15 to 18 inches

(380 to 455 mm)

Toilet Seat Height

11 to 12 inches

(280 to 305 mm)

12 to 15 inches

(305 to 380 mm)

15 to 17 inches

(380 to 430 mm)

Grab Bar Height

18 to 20 inches

(455 to 510 mm)

20 to 25 inches

(510 to 635 mm)

25 to 27 inches

(635 to 685 mm)

Dispenser Height

14 inches

(355 mm)

14 to 17 inches

(355 to 430 mm)

17 to 19 inches

(430 to 485 mm)

604.9.1 Location. The water closet shall be located with a wall or partition to the rear and to one side. The centerline of the water closet shall be 12 inches (305 mm) minimum and 18 inches (455 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition, except that the water closet shall be 17 inches (430 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum from the side wall or partition in the ambulatory accessible toilet compartment specified in 604.8.2. Compartments shall be arranged for left-hand or right-hand approach to the water closet.

604.9.2 Clearance. Clearance around a water closet shall comply with 604.3.

604.9.3 Height. The height of water closets shall be 11 inches (280 mm) minimum and 17 inches (430 mm) maximum measured to the top of the seat. Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted position.

604.9.4 Grab Bars. Grab bars for water closets shall comply with 604.5.

604.9.5 Flush Controls. Flush controls shall be hand operated or automatic. Hand operated flush controls shall comply with 309.2 and 309.4 and shall be installed 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor. Flush controls shall be located on the open side of the water closet except in ambulatory accessible compartments complying with 604.8.2.

604.9.6 Dispensers. Toilet paper dispensers shall comply with 309.4 and shall be 7 inches (180 mm) minimum and 9 inches (230 mm) maximum in front of the water closet measured to the centerline of the dispenser. The outlet of the dispenser shall be 14 inches (355 mm) minimum and 19 inches (485 mm) maximum above the finish floor. There shall be a clearance of 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) minimum below the grab bar. Dispensers shall not be of a type that controls delivery or that does not allow continuous paper flow.

604.9.7 Toilet Compartments. Toilet compartments shall comply with 604.8.